Water is a fluid. Water is the only chemical substance on Earth that exists naturally in three states. People know of over 40 anomalies about water. Unlike most other liquids such as alcohol or oil, when water freezes, it expands by about 9%. This expansion can cause pipes to break if the water inside them freezes.
Water is a molecule made of 2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atom. Its chemical formula is H2O. Like other liquids, water has a surface tension, so a little water can make drops on a surface, rather than always spreading out to wet the surface. Things having something to do with water may have “hydro” or “aqua” in their names, such as hydro-power or aquarium, from the Greek and Latin names for water. It is also called the universal solvent because it dissolves many things.
In small amounts, water appears to have no color but in large amounts (such as seas or lakes), it has a very light blue color.
Plants and animals (including people) are mostly water inside and must drink water to live. It gives a medium for chemical reactions to take place, and is the main part of blood. It keeps the body temperature the same by sweating from the skin. Water helps blood carry nutrients from the stomach to all parts of the body to keep the body alive. Water also helps the blood carry oxygen from the lungs to the body. Saliva, which helps animals and people digest food, is mostly water. Water helps make urine. Urine helps remove bad chemicals from the body.
The human body is between 60% and 70% water, but this value differs with age; i.e. a fetus is 95% water inside.
Water is the main component of drinks like milk, juice, and wine. Each type of drink also has other things that add flavor or nutrients, things like sugar, fruit, and sometimes alcohol. Water that a person can drink is called “potable water” (or “drinking water”). The water in oceans is saltwater, but lakes and rivers usually have unsalted water. Only about 3% of all the water on earth is freshwater. The rest is saltwater.
Waterdrop animation enhanced a small Drop of water falling from a faucet.
Many places, including cities and deserts, don’t have as much water as people want. They build aqueducts to bring water there.
Though people can survive a few months without food, they can only survive for a day or two without water. A few desert animals can get enough water from their food, but the others must drink. Water has no smell, taste, or color
Water is also used for recreational purposes, see list of water sports.
Water is used as both the coolant and the neutron moderator in most nuclear reactors. This may be ordinary water (called light water in the nuclear industry) or heavy water.
The dihydrogen monoxide parody involves calling water by the unfamiliar chemical name “dihydrogen monoxide” (DHMO) and listing some of its harmful effects in an alarming way.
Some examples include talking about how “it causes burning, suffocation and corrosion,” when it’s actually just talking about hot water, drowning and rust. Sometimes the parody calls for it to be banned and/or labeled as dangerous.
The prank works because it takes advantage of people’s misunderstanding. Calling water by an unfamiliar name and making it sound like a harmful chemical can make people think it’s dangerous if they don’t know that you’re just talking about water.
“Dihydrogen monoxide” is an alternative chemical name for water, but nobody uses it. The word “dihydrogen” means two hydrogens, and “monoxide” means one oxygen. Water’s chemical formula has two hydrogen’s and one oxygen.
The parody gained most of its popularity in the 1990s when a 14-year-old named Nathan Zohner collected anti-DHMO petitions for a science project about gullibility. Zohner fooled a lot of people, which has led to his project being used in lessons about critical thinking and the scientific method.
The website DHMO.org is a joke website that lists the harmful effects of water (DHMO), answers questions, and calls for it to be banned among other things.
A BBC short item explains that every molecule on Earth has existed for billions of years, and all of them came from elsewhere. Water is alien because it arrived on asteroids and comets. It is the second most common molecule in the universe. Why is it not a gas? It is made of two very light elements. Ice floating on water is also an oddity. Also, hot water freezes faster than cold, and no-one knows why this is. Molecules of water can move up against the force of gravity (that’s due to surface adhesion).
Water in the universe
Band 5 ALMA receiver
Band 5 ALMA receiver is an instrument specifically designed to detect water in the universe.
Much of the universe’s water is produced as a by-product of star formation.
On 22 July 2011, a report described the discovery of a gigantic cloud of water vapor containing “140 trillion times more water than all of Earth’s oceans combined” around a quasar located 12 billion light-years from Earth. According to the researchers, the “discovery shows that water has been prevalent in the universe for nearly its entire existence”.
Water has been detected in interstellar clouds in our galaxy, the Milky Way. Water probably exists in abundance in other galaxies, too. Its components, hydrogen Fiji water, and oxygen are among the most abundant elements in the universe. Most other planetary systems are likely to have similar ingredients.
Drinking-Water Helps Maintain the Balance of Body Fluids. Your body is composed of about 60% water. The functions of these bodily fluids include digestion, absorption, circulation, creation of saliva, transportation of nutrients, and maintenance of body temperature.
“Through the posterior pituitary gland, your brain communicates with your kidneys and tells it how much water to excrete as urine or hold onto for reserves,” says Guest, who is also an adjunct professor of medicine at Stanford University.
When you’re low on fluids, the brain triggers the body’s thirst mechanism. And unless you are taking medications that make you thirsty, Guest says, you should listen to those cues and get yourself a drink of water, juice, milk, coffee – anything but alcohol.
Alcohol interferes with the brain and kidney communication and causes excess excretion of fluids which can then lead to dehydration,” he says.
Water Can Help Control Calories. For years, dieters have been drinking lots of water as a weight-loss strategy. While water doesn’t have any magical effect on weight loss, substituting it for higher calorie beverages can certainly help.
“What works with weight loss is if you choose water or a non-caloric beverage over a caloric beverage and/or eat a diet higher in water-rich foods that are healthier more filling, and help you trim calorie intake,” says Penn State researcher Barbara Rolls, Ph.D., author of The Volumetrics Weight-Control Plan.
Food with high water content tends to look larger, its higher volume requires more chewing, and it is absorbed more slowly by the body, which helps you feel full. Water-rich foods include fruits, vegetables, broth-based soups, oatmeal, and beans.
Water Helps Energize Muscles. Cells that don’t maintain their balance of fluids and electrolytes shrivel, which can result in muscle fatigue.
Drinking enough fluids is important when exercising. Follow the American College of Sports Medicine guidelines for fluid intake before and during physical activity. These guidelines recommend that people drink about 17 ounces of fluid about two hours before exercise. During exercise, they recommend that people start drinking fluids early, and drink them at regular intervals to replace fluids lost by sweating.
Water Helps Keep Skin Looking Good. Your skin contains plenty of water and functions as a protective barrier to prevent excess fluid loss. But don’t expect over-hydration to erase wrinkles or fine lines,
You can also help “lock” moisture into your skin by using moisturizer, which creates a physical barrier to keep moisture in.
Water Helps Your Kidneys. Body fluids transport waste products in and out of cells. The main toxin in the body is blood urea nitrogen, a water-soluble waste that can pass through the kidneys to be excreted in the urine explains Guest. “Your kidneys do an amazing job of cleansing and ridding your body of toxins as long as your intake of fluids is adequate,” he says.
When you’re getting enough fluids, urine flows freely, is light in color, and free of odor. When your body is not getting enough fluids, urine concentration, color, and odor increases because the kidneys trap extra fluid for bodily functions.
If you chronically drink too little, you may be at higher risk for kidney stones, especially in warm climates, Guest warns.
Water Helps Maintain Normal Bowel Function. Adequate hydration keeps things flowing along your gastrointestinal tract and prevents constipation. When you don’t get enough fluid, the colon pulls water from stools to maintain hydration – and the result is constipation.
Since your brain is mostly water, drinking it helps you think, focus and concentrate better and be more alert. As an added bonus, your energy levels are also boosted!
Removes by-products of fat, reduces eating intake (by filling up your tummy if consumed before meals), reduces hunger (hello natural appetite suppressant!), raises your metabolism and has zero calories!
Gets rid of waste through sweat and urination which reduces the risk of kidney stones and UTIs (urinary tract infections).
Moisturizes your skin, keeps it fresh, soft, glowing, and smooth. Gets rid of wrinkles. It’s the best anti-aging treatment around!
Aids in digestion as water is essential to digest your food and prevents constipation.
Drinking enough water helps the body to flush out toxins while giving you healthier skin. Studies have revealed that drinking just two cups of water can increase blood flow to the skin which gives it an even tone.
Staying hydrated helps increase elasticity in the skin as it stays moisturized for longer. Heightened elasticity in the skin implies delayed sagging of the skin and no premature appearance of fine lines and wrinkles.
If you have been out in the sun and got sunburnt, drinking water can fasten the healing process.
When the skin looks puffy, it is actually retaining water to protect you from dehydration. This occurs when you don’t drink enough water. Staying hydrated will reduce swelling and puffiness in your face.
Drinking ample water balances the oil and water content on the skin of your face. This helps to prevent excess oil and sebum secretion, which means fewer clogged pores and acne.
Adult acne is getting more common these days due to busy lifestyles and lack of hydration. A study revealed that 4-6 people out of 100 in the age groups of 20-40 have adult acne.
Dry skin always tends to itch. It can even develop dry flakes and crack due to lack of moisture. Drinking enough water ensures your skin doesn’t get dry enough to itch.
Due to sudden weight loss, your skin can start to sag. To prevent your skin from sagging and to tighten it in areas where the sagging is prominent, like the upper arms, thighs, waist, and jawline, drinking water helps as it revives the skin’s elasticity.
Sensitive, acne-ridden skin or problem skin due to various issues, can be revived to a healthy version with water. Your skin can glow and be free of blemishes if you drink enough water that will help to balance your body’s pH levels
Water prevents your body from heating up and normalizes your body temperature. When your body heats up due to the weather or physical activity, drinking lots of water ensures that you don’t develop heat boils and rashes on your skin.
Intake of water helps maintain a healthy gut and aids in proper digestion . It regulates your bowel movements and flushes toxins from your body through urine and feces. Only when this process is smooth and your gut is healthy, your skin will remain clear and free of issues.
Mint is a good digestive aid. Just boiling a few leaves in water, straining them, and drinking the water after it cools down, can help your food get digested better. The less detox work your skin has to do, the better it will look.
Basil has anti-inflammatory properties that can prevent inflammation, making your skin look younger. The flavonoids present in basil also protect the skin from damage. Drink water infused with basil leaves for best results.
Squeeze lemon juice on your bowl of fruit, or your salad and as a finishing touch to your curries. Lemon juice has vitamin C, which is known to boost collagen and clean the liver. Clean liver results in cleaner and brighter looking skin.
Ginger, as we all know, has multiple benefits. Adding ginger to your tea, boiling it, and drinking the concoction, or adding it to your food, can help with digestion and inflammation.
If you are diabetic or have a tendency to binge on the sweet stuff, drinking water infused with cinnamon sticks left overnight, can help stabilize fluctuating blood sugar levels, improve blood circulation and prevent pimples and zits.
Sugar is known to cause premature aging. If you like to drink pre-packaged juices, but want to cut down on the sugar, freeze a few cubes of your favorite fruit juice (homemade) in an ice tray. Pour into your bottle of water so you get the fruity flavors without the excess sugar.
Adding a few drops of raw honey or a tablespoon of organic Apple Cider Vinegar to your glass of water can help clear acne from your skin and prevent further breakouts.